Hubmaier, an Anabaptist burned at the stake in 1528, preached at St. Peter's
(built starting in 1276). "While Grebel and Mantz advocated
non-violence, Balthasar Hubmaier (d. 1528), for example, the reformer of
Waldshut, participated in the Peasants' War" (1524-5) (Sigrun Haude,
"Anabaptism," The Reformation World (ed. Andrew Pettegree),
243). Hubmaier's wife was drowned in the
Danube. A few months before Hubmaier’s death,
Luther wrote a tract against the Anabaptists (January or February, 1528).
In it he said, "I know well enough that Balthasar Huebmoer [sic]
quotes me among others by name, in his blasphemous book on Re-baptism, as if I
were of his foolish mind. But I take comfort in the fact that neither friend
nor foe will believe such a lie, since I have sufficiently in my sermons shown
my faith in infant-baptism" (P. Schaff, History
of the Christian Church, vol. 7, p. 60).
St. Peter's, Regensburg, Germany
Melanchthon once warned his readers:
"Do not let yourself be deceived by the comportment of the
Anabaptists, by their lifestyle, and by their willingness to become martyrs for
their faith. All their revelations are
lies, their humility is pretence, so is their great brotherly love, their
patient endurance of suffering, and the audacity and stubbornness with which
they approach their death. All these are
tricks of the devil." Obviously,
the Anabaptists had significant success amongst both Catholic and Protestant
congregations (Sigrun Haude, "Anabaptism," The Reformation World
(ed. Andrew Pettegree), 250). In 1533, Fritz
Erbe, an Anabaptist, was imprisoned at Wartburg Castle. In 1536 Melanchthon drafted a memorandum demanding
death for Anabaptists. Three years later, Erbe is given a chance to renounce his
convictions, yet remains true to his faith. Fritz Erbe died after being incarcerated 15 years in the
Wartburg solely for his religious convictions. Luther did not express one word
of sympathy, respect or regret (Roland H. Bainton, The Travail of Religious Liberty: Nine Biographical Studies,
Wartburg Dungeon, Eisenach,
1534, Jan Matthys and John Leyden, two eccentric Anabaptists, forced all who
refused rebaptism to leave Muenster,
They proposed the slaughter of all the ungodly who remained in the city.
"Jan [van Leiden] himself took sixteen wives and exercised harsh rule
during the last months of the siege [of Muenster]. By then, food had become scarce and morale
low. The city finally fell through treason
on 25 June 1535"
(Sigrun Haude, "Anabaptism," The Reformation World (ed. Andrew
Pettegree), 245). When they were
subdued, the townspeople tortured and killed them. Their remains hung in
iron cages on St. Lambert's
church belfry for over a hundred years as a warning against heresy.
Matthys' and Leyden's actions led all Europe to intensify the persecution of Anabaptists.
St. Lambert, Muenster, Germany
Cages on St. Lambert
Buggy ride through Amish Country,
Amish have their roots in the Mennonite community. Both were part of the
early Anabaptist movement in Europe, which
took place at the time of the Reformation.
Many early Anabaptists were put to death as heretics by both Catholics
and Protestants, and many others fled to the mountains of Switzerland and
Here began the Amish tradition of farming and holding their worship services in
homes rather than churches. In 1536, a
young Catholic priest from Holland
named Menno Simons joined the Anabaptist movement. His writings and leadership united many of
the Anabaptist groups, who were nicknamed "Mennonites." In 1693, a Swiss bishop named Jacob Amman broke
from the Mennonite church. His followers were called the
"Amish." Although the two
groups have split several times, the Amish and Mennonite churches still share
the same beliefs concerning baptism, non-resistance, and basic Bible doctrines.
They differ in matters of dress, technology, language, form of worship, and
interpretation of the Bible. The Amish
and Mennonites both settled in Pennsylvania
as part of William Penn's "holy experiment" of religious tolerance.
The first sizable group of Amish arrived in Lancaster County
in the 1720s or 1730s.
Bunyon wrote his allegory of the
Christian journey in Pilgrim's Progress
of John Bunyon, London, England Count
Von Tilly, Breitenbrunn, Germany
Tilly Fest, Breitenbrunn,
Germany Westminster Abbey, London, England
von Tilly fought against the spread
of Protestantism in southern Germany
during the Thirty Years War (1631). Just
20 years earlier, half the translators of the KJV completed their work at Westminster
Abbey in London
Franklin estimated George Whitfield
(ca. 1740) could be heard by 20 thousand people at one time. George Whitfield helped the Wesleys start the
Holy Club at Oxford. John Wesley, as a preacher, traveled about
5,000 mi. per year on horseback. Both Charles
and John Wesley were instrumental in
the success of the Great Awakening and revival in the 18th century.
Wesley House, London, England Charles
Graves of Jonathan Edwards (my immediate
right) and Aaron Burr (my left), Princeton,
Jonathan Edwards was 3rd president of Princeton University
(1745-1801), and grandfather of Aaron Burr, Jr. (Vice President of the U.S.
from 1801-1805, and better known for his duel with Alexander Hamilton). Edwards is well known for the sermon
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" (which was preached during the
height of the Great Awakening around 1740).
I read one of his letters to a Benjamin Trumbull (6 November 1792)
where, on the reverse, he makes calculations that indicate the Lord will return
in the year 2020. He gets this by adding
1260 (Rev. 11:3 and 12:6) and 666 (the number of the beast) to the year of
John's prophecy (94). Furthermore,
Edwards adds 666 to 94 to get 760, the year Charles the Great subdued the
Lombards. Edwards, a post-millennialist,
believed most would be saved by 2000, ushering in the millennium by the year
Charles Hodge built this house in 1823 and lived here while a
professor at Princeton Seminary (1825-78).
Charles Hodge's former residence,
Princeton Theological Seminary, Flossenberg Concentration Camp
Princeton, NJ Flossenberg,
WW2, Dietrich Bonhoeffer was martyred at Flossenberg Concentration Camp.
His contributions to Christian thought have even today brought many to the
throne of Grace. He made comparison between cheap and costly grace in his
book, The Cost of Discipleship.
Bonhoeffer said "cheap grace is the preaching of forgiveness without requiring
repentance, baptism without church discipline, communion without
confession...Costly grace is the gospel which must be sought again and
again, the gift which must be asked for, the door at which a man must knock"
(Dietrich Bonhoeffer, The Cost of Discipleship,
(New York: Macmillan, 1978), p. 47).
two of the foremost authorities on New Testament Textual Criticism are Barbara
Aland, of the Institute for New Testament Textual Research in Muenster,
Germany, and Bruce Metzger of Princeton Theological Seminary, Princeton,
Dr. Barbara Aland, Institute for New Testament Textual Research, Dr. Bruce Metzger, Princeton, N.J.
This work (including all photos) is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 3.0 United States License.
Note: While I make every effort to produce an
error-free document, errors occasionally creep in. I would appreciate you
bringing any to my attention so that I may make the necessary corrections.
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